Early and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Early and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Today we are talking about a complex topic, one that I get asked many questions about and one that can be very challenging both emotionally and physically for a patient. As defined by The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (ACOG), “The loss of a pregnancy during the first 13 weeks of pregnancy (the first trimester) is called early pregnancy loss, miscarriage, or spontaneous abortion.” Approximately 80% of all cases of pregnancy loss occur within the first trimester. ACOG has an excellent resource on early pregnancy loss, and you can find it here.

Early pregnancy loss occurs in about 10% of known pregnancies, and is clinically recognized as “common”. However, that does not mean it is unimportant or insignificant. Though it is common in the larger population of all pregnancies, it is not necessarily common to the individual who experiences it. It is still a loss.

Pregnancy Loss Support

As someone who has experienced early pregnancy loss, I know first-hand how devastating it can be. No matter if it is a miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, there are support groups available to help you. If you have experienced a pregnancy loss, this article in Very Well Family is a tremendous resource in which to find support.

Live Discussion on Early and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Joining me to discuss this topic in depth is Dr. Erica Montes, an ObGyn from Phoenix, Arizona. You can connect with her and follow her on Instagram @the.modern.mujer and www.themodernmujer.com.

We cover the many reasons early pregnancy loss can occur. We also discuss whether each loss is considered in a recurrent pregnancy loss workup or not. Physicians do not always include all pregnancy losses in recurrent pregnancy loss workup, but they will still keep it noted in your medical history. Although a full workup may not be done, know that as a patient and parent it is absolutely OK and normal to grieve the loss. If you are concerned about pregnancy loss, have experienced it, or are wanting to understand more about it, this discussion will be very helpful.

Topics Covered:

4:42- Chemical Pregnancy Loss
A chemical pregnancy is when you have a positive pregnancy test right after you miss a period, but the next test is negative or you have a period shortly after. It occurs at less than 5 weeks and is thought to be caused by chromosomal abnormalities. A biochemical or chemical pregnancy is not considered in a recurrent pregnancy loss workup. This is because it was super early before there was ever a viable fetus in the uterus or anything showing up on an ultrasound. However, if there are multiple chemical pregnancies back-to-back, a fertility doctor may do a work-up to see what might be the underlying cause.

9:12- Anembryonic Demise/Pregnancy or Blighted Ovum
It’s thought that these types of pregnancy losses make up about half of all pregnancy losses. These losses are included in a recurrent pregnancy loss workup because there was a sac in the uterus that showed up on an ultrasound at some point.

10:44- Ectopic Pregnancy
When a pregnancy implants anywhere other than the uterine cavity, an ectopic pregnancy has occurred. These losses are not considered in a recurrent pregnancy loss workup. Some factors that can increase the risk for ectopic pregnancy are STD’s like Chlamydia, smoking, tubal ligation or sterilization, age, and IVF.

13:28- Molar Pregnancy
This is a genetically abnormal pregnancy. A patient may present with a larger than normal uterus, possibly with bleeding or pain because there can be cysts on the ovaries. This is not included in a recurrent pregnancy loss workup

16:40- How Common is Early Pregnancy Loss.  
We want patients to understand that early pregnancy loss is not caused by one’s own fault in any way. Although early pregnancy loss is common, it can still be devastating.

18:18- Chromosomal Abnormalities

30:00- When will a patient have D&C versus medical management of an early pregnancy loss

32:24- D&C (Dilation and curettage)

34:40- The option to pursue genetic testing on products of conception (to check for chromosomal analysis) after an early pregnancy loss

35:40- How long a patient should wait to get pregnant again after experiencing an early pregnancy loss

40:00- Progesterone supplementation (if, and, or when it is used)

42:06- Recurrent Pregnancy Loss
This is when a patient has 2 or more clinical pregnancy losses (something is seen on an ultrasound) before 20 weeks of pregnancy, back-to-back.

Additional Resources:

Miscarriage and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Finding the Right Doctor for You

The Babies After 35 Closed Facebook Group

I know this topic can be very difficult if you are in the midst of it. The hopeful news is that 60-80% of those who experience early pregnancy loss will eventually hold a pregnancy full-term.

As always, I hope that this information helps you feel empowered in your journey.

Frequently Asked Questions

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I am a double board certified ObGyn and Maternal-Fetal Medicine Specialist. I have worked at a large academic center in academic medicine as a clinician, educator and researcher since 2004.  I am currently a tenured Professor and actively manage patients with high-risk pregnancies.

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